Maritime transportation is considered to be one of the best transportation methods due to
effective low transportation costs. Besides, ship maintenance costs, and tourist services are
among services that can be provided by Wharfs in order to develop freight transportation.
Due to the unique geographical location, Caspian Sea and Anzali port can play important roles to
develop business between Iran, Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Turkey and
Iran, as one of the most important transportation gates in the world, is connected with15
countries through waterways and land lines. As we can see, Iran has a great potential to link
these countries to each other or to the world and there are considerable opportunities to improve
Wharfs and port services. (Noting that more than 90 per-cent of communication and cargo
transportation is achieved by maritime transportation).
This study considers establishing 3 cargo harbors - The passenger, repair and construction in
Anzali Free Zone. According to development plans of The Ports and Marine Organization, there
are 5 wharfs under construction in this region which are expected to increase loading and
unloading volume and improve maritime services in Anzali Free Zone.
According to government plan to transport high-volume goods, construction of wharfs with
drafts deeper than 10 meters is one of the most important and considerable plans that demands
Statistics indicate that there are 17 commercial and recreational ports and approximately 300
wharfs in Iran. Anzali has the lowest rate in this field (11 wharfs with a capacity of 5 thousand
tons). According to reports, Anzali loading and unloading capacity is expected to increase to 18
million tons in next 5 years. Meanwhile, Anzali and Caspian ports have a capacity 11 million and
15 million tons, respectively.
Presently, 77 per-cent of the capacity of ports in Anzali Free Zone is empty but according to
plans of the government, loading and unloading capacity must increase to 65 million tons by the
year 2020. So, increasing loading and unloading capacity of the ports helps freight transportation
to exceed faster, which leads into more income for the region.
In fact, construction of ports with deep enough drafts can provide a good condition for mooring
12 million ton ships in northern ports of Iran. It should be kept in mind that the Ports and Marine
Organization will provide private sector with a great deal of facilities for the construction of such
Essential equipment for ports depends on the activities of the port, but gantry cranes, portable
cranes, various types of suctions, and passenger terminals (only for passenger services) can be
named as the most essential factors in wharfs and also regarding the shortage of repair and
maintenance services, construction of such a facility can help economy to grow .